Empresas zombies y crisis mundial

  • Gustavo Burachik

Resumen

En los últimos meses una serie de estudios empíricos ha revelado la existencia en los países más avanzados de un amplio sector de empresas altamente endeudadas que, no obstante su incapacidad para generar ingresos, se mantienen activas. Se las llama empresas zombie. En este artículo reseñamos las investigaciones académicas y otras fuentes de información con el propósito de explicar y cuantificar el fenómeno. La supervivencia “forzada” de compañías capitalistas no resultó del funcionamiento económico “normal” del sistema, ha sido un producto directo de una política estatal concebida, precisamente, para poner un límite a la crisis. Ahora bien, ¿es posible moderar mediante la acción del estado el proceso de destrucción de capital sin terminar afectando negativamente el funcionamiento del organismo capitalista? La cuestión de las empresas zombie ofrece un terreno adecuado para contemplar las contradicciones y los límites de esta política.

Abstract

A series of empirical studies in the advanced countries have recently revealed the existence of significant a fringe of highly indebted companies that, despite their inability to generate income, remain active. They are called zombie companies. In this article we outline academic research and other sources of information with the purpose of explaining and quantifying the phenomenon. "Forced" survival of capitalist companies did not result from "normal" economic functioning of the system; it was instead an outcome of state policy deliberately conceived to temper social and political consequences of the crisis. Is it possible to moderate through state action the capital destruction process without eventually disturbing the functioning of the capitalist organism? The question of zombie companies offers an adequate terrain for discussing the contradictions and limits of this policy.

Resumo

Nos últimos meses, uma série de estudos empíricos revelou a existência em um amplo setor de empresas altamente endividados nos países mais avançados, apesar de sua incapacidade para não gerar renda, permanecem ativos. Eles são chamados de empresas zumbi. Neste artigo fazemos uma revisão da pesquisa acadêmica e outras fontes de informação, a fim de explicar e quantificar o fenômeno. "Forçado" sobrevivência das empresas capitalistas não era o sistema operacional "normal" econômica, tem sido um resultado direto de uma política de Estado concebido precisamente para colocar um limite para a crise. Agora, é possível moderar pela ação do Estado no processo de destruição de capital inacabada afectam negativamente o funcionamento do sistema capitalista? A questão das empresas zumbis oferece terreno adequado para ver as contradições e limites desta política.

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Publicado
2017-12-01
Como citar
BURACHIK, Gustavo. Empresas zombies y crisis mundial. Cuadernos de Economía Crítica, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 7, p. 131-156, dic. 2017. ISSN 2525-1538. Disponible en: <http://cec.sociedadeconomiacritica.org/index.php/cec/article/view/104>. Fecha de acceso: 19 ago. 2018